Effective Ways To Overcome Nipha Virus's Problem Interesting Facts and FAQs Treatment, Prevention of Nipah Virus
Nipah patients who have breathing difficulty are more likely than those without respiratory illness to transmit the virus, as are those who are more than 45 years of age. Ribavirin, m102.4 monoclonal antibody, and favipiravir were being studied as treatments as of 2019.
A Nipah virus infection is a viral infection caused by the Nipah virus. Symptoms from infection vary from none to fever, cough, headache, shortness of breath, and confusion.
This may worsen into a coma over a day or two, and 50% to 75% of those infected die.
Complications can include inflammation of the brain and seizures following recovery. The Nipah virus (NiV) is a type of RNA virus in the genus Henipavirus.
The virus normally circulates among specific types of fruit bats. It can both spread between people and from other animals to people. Spread typically requires direct contact with an infected source.
Diagnosis is based on symptoms and confirmed by laboratory testing. Management is restricted to supportive care; as of 2021, there is neither vaccine nor specific treatment.
Preventive measures include avoiding exposure to bats and sick pigs, and not drinking raw date palm sap. As of May 2018, about 700 human cases of the Nipah virus were estimated to have occurred, and 50 to 75 per cent of those infected died.
In May 2018, an outbreak of the disease caused 17 deaths in the Indian state of Kerala.
The disease was first identified in 1998 by a team of researchers at the Faculty of Medicine, the University of Malaya during an outbreak in Malaysia.
The majority of the patients in Malaysia diagnosed with the disease were referred to and treated at the University of Malaya Medical Centre. The virus was isolated and identified in 1999.
The disease is named after a village in Malaysia, Sungai Nipah. Pigs may also be infected, and millions were killed by Malaysian authorities in 1999 to stop the spread of disease, a measure which proved to be successful.
Signs and symptoms of Nipah VIrus Infection
The symptoms start to appear five to 14 days after exposure. Initial symptoms are fever, headache, and drowsiness, followed by disorientation and mental confusion. Respiratory issues can also be present during the early stages. Coma symptoms can manifest within 24 to 48 hours.
Encephalitis, inflammation of the brain, is a potentially fatal complication of Nipah virus infection. Nipah patients who have breathing difficulty are more likely than those without respiratory illness to transmit the virus, as are those who are more than 45 years of age.
The disease is suspected in symptomatic individuals in the context of an epidemic outbreak.
Risks with Nipah Virus Infection
The risk of exposure is high for hospital workers and caretakers of those infected with the virus.
In Malaysia and Singapore, the Nipah virus-infected people with close contact with infected pigs. In Bangladesh and India, the disease has been linked to the consumption of raw date palm sap (toddy), eating of fruits partially consumed by bats, and using water from wells inhabited by bats.
Laboratory diagnosis with Nipah Virus Infection
Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) depicted a number of Nipah virus virions from a person's cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). During acute and convalescent stages of the disease, RNA can be detected using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from throat swabs, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood analysis.
After recovery, IgG and IgM antibody detection can confirm a prior Nipah virus infection. Immunohistochemistry on tissues collected during autopsy also confirms the disease.
Prevention of Nipah Virus
Prevention through sanitary practices is the best protection. The likelihood of infection through animal transmission can be reduced by avoiding exposure to sick pigs, and to bats where the disease is endemic.
Bats harbour a significantly higher proportion of zoonotic viruses than all other mammalian orders, and are known not to be affected by the many viruses they carry, apparently due to their developing special immune systems to deal with the stress of flying.
Infection via bats can be caused by drinking raw palm sap (palm toddy) contaminated by bat excreta, eating fruits partially consumed by bats, and using water from wells infested by bats.
Bats are known to drink toddy that is collected in open containers, and occasionally urinate in it, which contaminates it with the virus; switching to closed-top containers prevents transmission via this route. Outbreaks can be reduced by surveillance and awareness.
The association of this disease with the reproductive cycle of bats is not well studied. Standard infection control practices can protect against human-to-human nosocomial infections.
A subunit vaccine using the Hendra G protein was found to produce cross-protective antibodies against both henipavirus and Nipah virus; this has been used in monkeys to protect against Hendra virus, although its potential for use in humans has not been studied.
Treatment for Nipah Virus
As of 2020, there is no specific treatment for Nipah virus infection. The mainstay of treatment is supportive care. Standard infection control practices and proper barrier nursing techniques are recommended to avoid the spread of the infection from person to person.
All suspected cases of Nipah virus infection should be isolated. While tentative evidence supports the use of ribavirin, it has not yet been studied in people with the disease. Specific antibodies have also been studied in an animal model with potential benefits.
Acyclovir, favipiravir, and remdesivir have been assessed as potential antivirals against Nipah virus.