From Stone Tools to Civilization: Exploring the Prehistoric Period and Human Origins 101 by Santhosh kumar Athaluri

Aug 5, 2023 - 16:37

The prehistoric period refers to a vast span of time before written records were kept, during which human societies did not have a system of writing to record historical events. As a result, our knowledge of this era is mainly derived from archaeological evidence, fossil records, and other scientific methods.

The prehistoric period is generally divided into three major stages:

Paleolithic (Old Stone Age): This era spans from the earliest appearance of human ancestors, approximately 2.6 million years ago, to around 10,000 BCE. During this time, humans were primarily hunter-gatherers, relying on tools made from stone, bone, and wood. They lived in small nomadic groups, migrating in search of food and shelter.

Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age): The Mesolithic period occurred from around 10,000 BCE to about 5,000 BCE. During this phase, humans began to develop more advanced stone tools and started to engage in some early forms of agriculture and animal domestication. They also continued to rely on hunting and gathering to sustain their communities.

Neolithic (New Stone Age): The Neolithic period began around 5,000 BCE and ended at different times in various regions, roughly between 3,000 BCE and 2,000 BCE. This stage marks a significant shift as humans transitioned from nomadic lifestyles to settled agricultural communities. They started cultivating crops, domesticating animals, and establishing permanent settlements. With the development of agriculture, human societies became more complex, leading to the rise of early civilizations.

It's important to note that these divisions are general and may vary depending on the specific region and the pace of technological and societal developments. The prehistoric period lays the foundation for human history and the emergence of more advanced civilizations with the advent of writing and recorded history.

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